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Part Two The California Constitution and Commentary, Art.VIII »

Joseph R. Grodin, Darien Shanske, Michael B. Salerno
From: The California State Constitution (2nd Edition)
Joseph R. Grodin, Michael B. Salerno, Darien Shanske
This article was repealed November 8, 1966.

Part Two The California Constitution and Commentary, Art.XVII »

Joseph R. Grodin, Darien Shanske, Michael B. Salerno
From: The California State Constitution (2nd Edition)
Joseph R. Grodin, Michael B. Salerno, Darien Shanske
Article XVII was repealed June 8, 1976.

Appendix H Appendix H-1: Colonial Publications and Press Reports Respecting John Wilkes and His Role in The North Briton Forty-Five »

From: The Fourth Amendment: Origins and Original Meaning 602 - 1791
William J. Cuddihy

Part I Constitutional History, C 1867: Confederation, Ch.4 1867: Confederation »

Robert Vipond
From: The Oxford Handbook of the Canadian Constitution
Edited By: Peter Oliver, Patrick Macklem, Nathalie Des Rosiers
The Constitution Act, 1867 is one of the world’s oldest national constitutions in existence. This chapter explores the possibility that the longevity of Canada’s written constitution reflects design decisions made by its architects in the 1860s. It argues, more specifically, that the Canadian Constitution is characterized by “constitutional ambivalence”. It shows how this ambivalence became lodged in the design of three pillars of the constitutional order—federalism, democracy, and minority rights—and it explains how this ambivalence provided flexibility to adapt to environmental changes. It also shows how, when constitutional ambivalence was not present, for example with respect to the locus of sovereignty and Aboriginal rights, the effect was predictably de-stabilizing.

The 1992 Amendment of the Spanish Constitution: A Tale of Two Words »

Carlos Flores Juberias
Edited By: Gisbert H. Flanz
Since its entry into force on 29 December 1978, the Spanish Constitution has only been amended once. The formal simplicity of this amendment—the addition of two words to the original constitutional text—its widely acknowledged lack of serious political implications, the fact that it was passed with the highest degree of consensus among parliamentary political forces, and the fact that it was debated in the middle of the summer on the eve of the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Games, made it pass virtually unnoticed for most Spanish citizens. Notwithstanding these facts,...

28 U.S.C. § 91, January 22, 2002 (United States [us]) »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
Hawaii constitutes one judicial district which includes the Midway Islands, Wake Island, Johnston Island, Sand Island, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Island, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Canton Island, and Enderbury Island: Provided, That the inclusion of Canton and Enderbury Islands in such judicial district shall in no way be construed to be prejudicial to the claims of the United Kingdom to said Islands in accordance with the agreement of April 6, 1939, between the Governments of the United States and of the United Kingdom to set up a regime for their...

32 CFR § 935-National Defense (United States [us]) »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
Subtitle A - [ Department of Defense (Continued)] CHAPTER VII DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SUBCHAPTER N—TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS PART 935—WAKE ISLAND CODE Authority: Sec. 48, Pub. L. 86-624, 74 Stat. 424; E.O. 11048, Sept. 1, 1962, 27 FR 8851, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 632; agreement between the Department of Interior and Department of the Air Force, dated 19 June 1972, 37 FR 12255; and Secretary of the Air Force Order 111.1, dated 26 April 1999. Source: 67 FR 16999, Apr. 9, 2002, unless otherwise noted. (a) The local civil and criminal laws of Wake...

41st Amendment Act of August 30, 1994 and the 42nd Amendment Act of October 27, 1994 (Germany [de]) »

Edited By: Gisbert H. Flanz
In Article 3 a second sentence was inserted into paragraph 2 and a second sentence was inserted into the paragraph 3 . The new second sentence provides: The State fosters the actual achievement of equal entitlement ( Gleichberechtigung ) between women and men and strives to eliminate existing disadvantages. The second sentence in paragraph 3 of Article 3 reads: No one may be disadvantaged because of one's impairment ( Behinderung ). A new Article 20a reads: Article 20a [Protection of the natural foundations of life] The State protects also with responsibility to...

43rd Amendment Act of November 3, 1995; the 44th Amendment Act of October 20, 1997; the 45th Amendment Act of March 26, 1998 and the 46th Amendment Act of July 16, 1998 (Germany [de]) »

Edited By: Gisbert H. Flanz
In June 1995, we published our English translations of the 41st Amendment of August 30, 1994, and the 42nd Amendment of October 27, 1994. Since that time, there have been four more Amendments: the 43rd of November 3, 1995, the 44th of October 20, 1997, the 45th of March 26, 1998, and the 46th of July 16, 1998. At this time, we are publishing English translations to bring our English translations of the Basic Law up to date. The 43rd Amending Act of November 3, 1995, concerned Article 106 paragraphs 3 and 4 . It may be noted that Article 106 , which concerns the...

F, 44 Liquormart v. Rhode Island (1996), »

Edited By: Kermit L. Hall, James W. Ely Jr., Joel B. Grossman
From: The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2nd Edition)
Edited By: Kermit L. Hall

47th (November 11, 2000), 48th (December 19, 2000), 49th (November 26, 2001), 50th (July 26, 2002) and 51st (July 26, 2002) Amendment Acts to the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany (Germany [de]) »

Edited By: Gisbert H. Flanz
Our most recent supplement was published in June 1999. We provided our English translations of the four most recent amendments (43, 44, 45 and 46) to the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany. Since that time, there have been five more amendments: The 47th Amendment modified Article 16 , which concerns citizenship. The first sentence remains the same to the effect that, "no German may be deprived of citizenship. The loss of citizenship may only be implemented on the basis of a law and against the will of the affected (person), if such person does not...

48 U.S.C. Chapter 13: Eastern Samoa »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
(a) Ceded to and accepted by United States The cessions by certain chiefs of the islands of Tutuila and Manua and certain other islands of the Samoan group lying between the thirteenth and fifteenth degrees of latitude south of the Equator and between the one hundred and sixty-seventh and one hundred and seventy-first degrees of longitude west of Greenwich, herein referred to as the islands of eastern Samoa, are accepted, ratified, and confirmed, as of April 10, 1900, and July 16, 1904, respectively. (b) Public land laws; revenue The existing laws of the United...

48 U.S.C. Chapter 14: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
Termination Of Trust Territory Of The Pacific Islands The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which included the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau, terminated. The Trusteeship Agreement terminated with respect to the Republic of the Marshall Islands on Oct. 21, 1986, with respect to the Federated States of Micronesia and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands on Nov. 3, 1986, and with respect to the Republic of Palau on Oct. 1, 1994. See Proc. No. 5564, Nov. 3, 1986, 51 F.R. 40399, set out...

48 U.S.C. Chapter 7: Virgin Islands (as Amended to 2006) (Virgin Islands, US [vi]) »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
Additional Provisions For additional provisions, constituting a revision of the Organic Act of the Virgin Islands of the United States, see section 1541 et seq. of this title. Codification A new organic act, or basic charter of civil government, for the people of the Virgin Islands of the United States, was passed in 1954. Act July 22, 1954, ch. 558, 68 Stat. 497, known as the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands, is set out as section 1541 et seq. of this title. Section 8(c) of the Revised Organic Act, set out as section 1574(c) of this title, provides that...

48 U.S.C. Chapter 7: Virgin Islands (as Amended to 2007) (United States [us]) »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
For additional provisions, constituting a revision of the Organic Act of the Virgin Islands of the United States, see section 1541 et seq. of this title. A new organic act, or basic charter of civil government, for the people of the Virgin Islands of the United States, was passed in 1954. Act July 22, 1954, ch. 558, 68 Stat. 497, known as the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands, is set out as section 1541 et seq. of this title. Section 8(c) of the Revised Organic Act, set out as section 1574(c) of this title, provides that laws of the United States, set out...

48 U.S.C. Chapter 8A: Guam: August 1, 1950 (as Amended to December 1998) (Guam [gu]) »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
The territory ceded to the United States in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain, signed at Paris, December 10, 1898, and proclaimed April 11, 1899, and known as the island of Guam in the Marianas Islands, shall continue to be known as Guam. (Aug. 1, 1950, ch. 512, Sec. 2, 64 Stat. 384.) [2] Effective Date; Continuation Of Federal Administration Section 34 of act Aug. 1, 1950, provided that on the 21st day of July 1950, the authority and powers conferred by this chapter would come into force, and authorized the...

48 U.S.C. Chapter 8A: Guam: August 1, 1950 (as Amended to November 2006) »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
The territory ceded to the United States in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain, signed at Paris, December 10, 1898, and proclaimed April 11, 1899, and known as the island of Guam in the Marianas Islands, shall continue to be known as Guam. (Aug. 1, 1950, ch. 512, Sec. 2, 64 Stat. 384.) Section 34 of act Aug. 1, 1950, provided that on the 21st day of July 1950, the authority and powers conferred by this chapter would come into force, and authorized the President, for a period not to exceed one year from Aug. 1,...

48 U.S.C. Chapter 9: Samoa, Tutuila, Manua, Swains Island, and Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
Section 1431, act Mar. 4, 1925, ch. 563, 43 Stat. 1357, which related to sovereignty of United States extended over Swains Island, was transferred to section 1662 of this title. Section 1431a, acts Feb. 20, 1929, ch. 281, 45 Stat. 1253; May 22, 1929, ch. 6, 46 Stat. 4, which related to islands of Tutuila, Manua, and Eastern Samoa, was transferred to section 1661 of this title. Section 1432, act June 28, 1906, ch. 3585, 34 Stat. 552, which related to acknowledgment of deeds in the islands of Samoa, was transferred to section 1663 of this title. Section 1433, act...

50 CFR 38 (1996) Midway Islands 50 C.F.R. 38 »

Edited By: Oceana Editorial Board
CHAPTER I UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR--(Continued) SUBCHAPTER C -- THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PART 38 -- MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; 16 U.S.C. 460k et seq., 664, 668dd, 742(f), 3901 et seq.; 48 U.S.C. 644a; sec. 48, Pub. L. 86-624, 74 Stat 424; E.O. 13022, 61 FR 56875, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 224. Source: 63 FR 11626, Mar. 10, 1998, unless otherwise noted. (a) The regulations of this part apply to the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. For the purpose of this part, the Midway...

II Countries and Regions, 15 A Coup Against Constitutional Democracy: The Case of Hungary »

Gábor Halmai
From: Constitutional Democracy in Crisis?
Edited By: Mark A. Graber, Sanford Levinson, Mark Tushnet
Hungary was one of the first and most thorough political transitions after 1989, which provided all the institutional elements of constitutionalism: checks and balances and guaranteed fundamental rights. Hungary also represents the first, and probably the model case, of constitutional backsliding from a full-fledged liberal democratic system to an illiberal one with strong authoritarian elements. The current Hungarian constitutional system was made possible by FIDESZ’s anti-pluralist nationalist populism. To achieve this aim the populist government misuses the...