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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law [MPECCoL]

Hate Speech

Uladzislau Belavusau

Subject(s):
Bill of rights — Hate speech — Collective rights — Individual rights — Fundamental rights — Vulnerable groups

Published under the direction of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law.
General Editors: Rainer Grote, Frauke Lachenmann, Rüdiger Wolfrum.

1. ‘Hate speech’ consists of verbal or non-verbal communication that involves hostility directed towards particular social groups, most often on the grounds of race and ethnicity (racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism, etc), gender (sexism, misogyny), sexual orientation (homophobia, transphobia), age (ageism), disability (ableism), etc. (see discrimination ; racial discrimination ; gender discrimination ; LGBTI rights ; age discrimination ). 2. The most cited book on freedom of expression in Anglo-American constitutional doctrine, John Stuart Mill’s 1859 treatise ‘On...
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