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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law [MPECCoL]

Freedom of the Press

Norikazu Kawagishi

Subject(s):
Censorship — Freedom of expression — Freedom of the press — Hate speech

Published under the direction of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law.
General Editors: Rainer Grote, Frauke Lachenmann, Rüdiger Wolfrum.

1. The meaning of ‘freedom of the press’ may vary depending on the meaning of the word ‘press’. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, ‘press’ means ‘a machine for printing’ and ‘a place of business centred on the printing press, in which all the stages and processes of printing books, journals, etc. are carried out’. In this sense, freedom of the press signifies freedom of expression through printed media. The press may also refer to ‘[n]ewspapers, journals, and periodical literature collectively’ or ‘[j]ournalists, newspaper reporters collectively’. The...
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