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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law [MPECCoL]

Powers of Foreign Policy and National Defence in Federal Systems

W John Hopkins

Separation of powers — Foreign Affairs — Foreign affairs — Delegated powers
1. Defence and foreign policy may seem unlikely powers to be vested in the constituent states of federations. However, from the very birth of modern federalism , constituent states have played a limited yet significant role in these most federal of responsibilities ( component federal units ). Although powers in relation to defence have become the exception ( powers of foreign policy and national defence in federal systems ), constituent state involvement in the field of foreign policy has now become the norm in most federal and quasi-federal systems. 2. Early...
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