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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law [MPECCoL]

Freedom of Teaching

Valentina Cardinale

Freedom of teaching — Education

Published under the direction of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law.
General Editors: Rainer Grote, Frauke Lachenmann, Rüdiger Wolfrum.

1. Freedom of teaching can be broadly defined as the individual right of teachers to exercise their profession without any political, religious or ideological restraint. The recognition and legal enforcement of freedom of teaching is relatively recent. While many constitutions expressly acknowledge it as a fundamental right, in other constitutional texts, especially older ones, there is no express provision that protects freedom of teaching, as it is only indirectly recognised under freedom of speech and freedom of expression provisions. In these circumstances,...
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