Part 3 What Kind of Government: Civilian or Military?, 3.1 State Control over the Military or Military Control over the State?: A Comparison of Selected Arab Constitutions
Tilmann J. Röder
Rainer Grote, Tilmann J. Röder
The Arab Spring brought the armed forces of all regional countries back to the center of attention. The call for a dawlah madanīyah or “civil state” in the streets, media, and politics clearly challenged the military character of many of the then-existing regimes. 1 At the turn of the year 2010/2011, Libya was still firmly under the control of Colonel Muʿammar al-Qadhdhāfī, who had overthrown King Idrīs in 1969 and continued to use his military rank like a title until his death. Ḥusnī Mubārak had served as Commander of the Egyptian Air Force before he became Anwar...