1 Naturalization refers to the legal act or process by which an individual becomes a national of a state. Rules on naturalization complement the rules on acquisition of nationality and citizenship at birth, together they regulate membership in the state. Both citizenship at birth and naturalization in general build on an actual link between the individual and the state, reflecting that ‘nationality is a legal bond having as its basis a social fact of attachment’ (Nottebohm (Liechtenstein v Guatemala) (1955) (ICJ); Nottebohm Case). 2 At the outset, the terms...
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