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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law [MPECCoL]

Semi-Presidential Systems

Andriy Tyushka

From: Oxford Constitutions (http://oxcon.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved.date: 08 August 2022

Separation of powers — Executive independence — Executive power — Political accountability — Parliamentary systems — Presidential systems — Semi-presidential systems

General Editors: Rainer Grote, Frauke Lachenmann, Rüdiger Wolfrum.
Managing Editor: Ana Harvey

1. An increasingly common form of government, semi-presidentialism, also known as a ‘mixed’ or ‘hybrid’ form of government with a dual executive, is a distinct political system that combines the features of the two pure forms of government, presidentialism and parliamentarianism. It offers, therefore, a middle ground between the two marginal forms of constitutional design. In semi-presidentialism, a directly elected president shares executive powers with a prime minister and a cabinet (the government), which are appointed by, and collectively responsible to, the...
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