Jordan is often described as an antique land, and the veracity of this description is attested by numerous archeological sites and findings—some from prehistoric times, others, more recent, from classical and late antiquity. As a political entity, however, Jordan is of recent provenance. Since the rise of Islam more than fourteen centuries ago, Jordan has always been part of the lands of the caliphate (636–1918 ad) and concurrently of various Muslim dynasties that ruled in its name. In geographical terms, it is part of Bilād al-Shām (i.e., Greater Syria). It was...
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