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D, Disparate Treatment

Edited By: Kermit L. Hall, James W. Ely Jr., Joel B. Grossman

From: The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2nd Edition)

Edited By: Kermit L. Hall

From: Oxford Constitutions (http://oxcon.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved. Subscriber: null; date: 07 June 2023

Disparate Treatment

in employment is intentional discrimination on the basis of a protected characteristic. Federal law prohibits disparate treatment because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, and age, as well as disability in qualified individuals who are disabled. Such discrimination, however, is permitted when an employer acts pursuant to a valid *affirmative action plan or when an employer can demonstrate that religion, sex, national origin, or age is a bona fide occupational qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of the business. Disparate treatment may be distinguished from *disparate impact, which occurs when a neutral employment practice has a disproportionate effect on members of a protected class.

See also employment discrimination.

Grant Hayden