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Articles on Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law

The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law launched on April 27, 2017, with 70 articles. New articles are added on a periodic and frequent basis throughout the course of each year until the full complement of over 600 planned articles—currently being authored, peer-reviewed, edited, and prepared for publication—is reached.

Browse the current list of 374 published articles below. *** denotes a newly published article, * denotes a newly updated article. A complete list of articles, both published and planned, is available for download. A regularly updated list showing only the currently available topics is available. For more information, please contact the Managng Editor at contact@mpeccol.de.

No. Article Title Author(s)
0002 Definition of Constitutions Rainer Grote
0007 Constitutional Endurance Juliano Zaiden Benvindo
0009 Constitutionalism Andrew Godden and John Morison
0010 Amendment or Revision of Constitutions Isabella Risini
0012 Autochthonous Constitutions Peter C Oliver
0016 Codified / Uncodified Constitution Matan A Gutman
0017 Drafting of Constitutions Joel I Colón-Ríos
0018 Rigid (Entrenched)/Flexible Constitutions Yaniv Roznai
0019 Express Recognition of Deity in Constitutions Jaclyn Neo
0021 Imposed Constitutions (Constitutions Octroyées) Yasuo Hasebe
0022 Interpretation of Constitutions Rainer Grote
0024 Legal Effect of Constitutions Elena Bindi and Mario Perini
0025 Monarchical Constitutions Peter Bussjaeger and Mirella Johler
0026 Ratification of Constitutions Frederik Becker
0027 Sociological Foundations of Constitutions Graziella Romeo
0030 Constitutions and Empirical Legal Studies Tilmann Altwicker
0031 Entrenched Clauses Jane Reis Gonçalves Pereira
0034 Foreign Law in Constitutional Interpretation Francesco Biagi
0038 Proportionality Iddo Porat
0043 Decolonization Daniel Bonilla Maldonado and Michael Riegner
0044 Weimar Constitution (1919) Astrid Wiik
0047 Methodologies of Comparative Constitutional Law: Contextual Approach Irene Spigno
0048 Methodologies of Comparative Constitutional Law: Functional Approach Francesca Bignami
0049 Methodologies of Comparative Constitutional Law: Historical Approach Felix Lange
0050 Methodologies of Comparative Constitutional Law: Universalist Approach Matteo Nicolini
0067 Abortion Radhika Rao
0068 Right to Access to Information Lana Ofak
0069 Age Discrimination Therese MacDermott and Helen Meenan
0070 Aliens Gregor Novak
0071 Protection and Status of Animals Jessica Eisen and Kristen Stilt
0073 Freedom of Art Eleni Polymenopoulou
0078 Bioethics Fruzsina Molnár-Gábor
0080 Censorship Eleni Polymenopoulou
0081 Rights of Children Warren Binford
0089 Consumer Protection Gregor Novak
0090 Corporations Jedidiah Kroncke and Michael Riegner
0091 Corruption and Bribery Siyuan Chen and Yi Siong Sui
0094 Culture  Lucas Lixinski
0095 Data Protection Fruzsina Molnár-Gábor
0096 Death Penalty Siyuan Chen and Yi Siong Sui
0099 Right to Development Gianna Alessandra Sanchez Moretti and Shyami Puvimanasinghe
0100 Human Dignity and Autonomy Frederik Becker
0101 Rights of Persons with Disabilities Kate Huh, Michael Ashley Stein, Aleta Sprague, Jody Heymann
0102 Discrimination Tarunabh Khaitan
0103 Dual / Multiple Citizenship Chiara Graziani
0105 Right to Education Matan Gutman and Yoram Rabin
0107 Right to Participate in Elections Achilles C Emilianides
0108 Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cells Fruzsina Molnár-Gábor
0111 Protection of Ethnic Minorities Matt Watson
0112 Ethnicity Nasia Hadjigeorgiou
0113 Euthanasia Andrew Geddis
0114 Freedom of Expression Adrienne Stone
0116 Right to a Fair Hearing In Administrative Law Cases Swati Jhaveri
0120 Right to a Fair Trial in Civil Law Cases Ana Koprivica
0122 The Right to a Family Life Alison Perry
0124 Right to Food Mathilde Cohen
0125 Right to Freedom Fernando Simón Yarza
0127 Gender Discrimination Gautam Bhatia and Jimena Suarez Ibarrola
0130 Hate Speech Uladzislau Belavusau
0131 Right to Health Jennifer Sellin
0135 Individual Rights Fernando Simón Yarza
0136 Labour Rights Luke Mason
0140 Right to Life Johann Justus Vasel
0141 Protection of Linguistic Minorities Matt Watson
0147 Philosophical Foundations of Natural Rights John Martin Gillroy, Oran Doyle
0149 Right to Intellectual Property Enyinna Nwauche
0150 Rights of Patients Pin Lean Lau
0153 Suspension of the Political Rights of Prisoners Pablo Marshall
0154 Freedom of the Press Norikazu Kawagishi
0155 Prisons and Prisoners *** Petra Butler
0156 Right to Privacy Anna Cornell
0157 State Interference with Private Property  Inga Martinkute
0161 Racial Discrimination Sina Van den Bogaert & Piotr Tereszkiewicz
0164 Protection of Religious Minorities  Arif A Jamal
0165 Reproductive Rights Gila Stopler
0166 Right to Resistance Emilio Peluso Neder Meyer
0168 Right to Sanitation Jimena Suárez Ibarrolar
0169 Freedom of Scientific Research Irene Spigno
0170 Right to Security Liora Lazarus
0172 Social Rights David Landau
0173 Right to Social Security Irene Sobrino Guijarro
0175 De Facto Discrimination Mais Qandeel
0176 Tolerance Irene Spigno
0182 Right to Water Sam Kalen
0183 Rights of Women Katrien Martens, Jan Wouters
0184 Right to Work Gautam Bhatia Jimena Suarez Ibarrola
0185 Absolutism Manuel Brunner
0188 Acta iure gestionis and acta iure imperii Charlene Sun and Aloysius Llamzon
0191 Administrative Agencies Jud Mathews
0192 Administrative Control Zoltán Szente
0194 Administrative Disputes in Civil Law Jurisdictions Lana Ofak
0195 Administrative Law Frédéric Rolland
0196 Administrative Procedures Xabier Arzoz
0198 Affirmative Action Inês Espinhaço Gomes
0199 Amnesty Andrés Cervantes Valarezo
0200 Amparo José María Serna de La Garza
0201 National Anthem Manuel Brunner
0204 Auditing Yoram Rabin, Elie P Mersel and Alon Rodas
0205 Authoritarianism Gábor Attila Tóth
0207 Bicameralism Yonatan Tesfaye Fessha
0208 Borders Matteo Nicolini
0213 Cabinet Frederik Becker
0214 Caste Systems Fernando Hernández Fradejas
0218 Chamber of Deputies Graham Butler
0220 Immunity of Heads of State under Constitutional Law Ajla Škrbic
0221 Citizenship Asem Khalil
0222 Civil Servants Yseult Marique
0227 Freedom of Trade and Commerce Gonzalo Villalta Puig
0231 Constituent Assemblies Costas Stratilatis
0236 Courts Reto Walther
0242 Direct Democracy  Anna Gamper
0243 Representative Democracy Andreas Kulick
0244 Devolution John Hopkins
0245 Diplomatic Protection Freya Baetens
0248 Dualism / Monism Robert Kolb and Momchil Milanov
0249 Due Process Agustín Ruiz Robledo
0251 Higher Education Pablo Meix Cereceda
0252 Primary Education Pablo Meix Cereceda
0253 Secondary Education Pablo Meix Cereceda
0255 Egalitarianism Damir Banović
0256 Elections Sara Pennicino
0260 Types and Effects of Emergency Alan Greene
0263 Enumerated Powers in Federal Systems Giacomo Delledonne
0264 Concept and Types of Environmental Rights John Martin Gillroy, Joel Blaxland
0265 Protection of the Environment Lana Ofak
0269 Executive Privilege Lisa Webley and Virginia Williams
0270 Role of Experts in Judicial Proceedings Dana Philips
0271 Role of Experts in Political Decision-Making Marta Morvillo
0272 Extradition Trina Malone and Michael Waibel
0273 Extraterritorial Application of Constitutional Rights Jane Rooney
0279 Federalism Mahendra Prasad Singh
0280 Component Federal Units Peter Bussjäger and Mirella Johler
0284 Distribution of Powers in Federal Systems Peter Bussjaeger and Mirella Johler
0285 Exclusive and Shared Competences in Federal Systems José María Serna de La Garza
0287 Fiscal Federalism Chanchal Kumar Sharma and Alice Valdesalici
0288 Judicial Systems in Federal Systems Gabrielle Appleby and Erin F Delaney
0289 Political Philosophy of Federalism Robert Schütze
0290 Powers of Foreign Policy and National Defence in Federal Systems W John Hopkins
0291 Representation of Component Federal Units in Federal Systems Jan Amilcar Schmidt
0294 Types of Federalism Nicholas Aroney
0296 Loyalty Towards Federation Michèle Finck
0301 Foreign Affairs Helmut Philipp Aust
0302 Organic / Cardinal Laws Boldizsár Szentgáli-Tóth
0305 Immunity of Heads of State under Constitutional Law Ajla Škrbic
0307 Theories Concerning the Hierarchy of Norms Cesare Pinelli
0308 Horizontal Application Christopher Unseld
0310 Immunity  Andrzej Jackiewicz and Artur Olechno
0311 Impeachment Ronald Ray K San Juan and Bryan Dennis G Tiojanco
0321 International ius cogens in National Law Alina Miron
0322 Ius Sanguinis Principle Björn Schiffbauer
0323 Ius Soli Principle Björn Schiffbauer
0327 Selection of Judges Anna Dziedzic
0329 Judicial Accountability Emilio Meyer and Thomas Bustamante
0332 Judicial Discretion David Clark
0334 Judicial Review Rainer Grote
0335 Limits on Access to Judicial Review Steven D Schwinn
0336 Judiciary Norikazu Kawagishi
0338 Impartiality of the Judiciary Piotr Mikuli
0339 Independence of the Judiciary Mia Smart
0341 Jury Christie S Warren
0347 Official Languages Maria Bertel and Esther Happacher
0348 Law Damir Banović
0350 Lay Judge Masayuki Tamaruya
0353 Legislative Body Debate Zoltán Szente
0355 Discretion of the Legislative Body Stephan Koloßa
0356 Dissolution of the Legislative Body  Giacomo Delledonne
0357 Prorogation of Legislative Body James Fowkes
0359 Legislative Procedure Elena Vodyanitskaya
0363 Liberalism Massimo Fichera
0364 Libertarianism *** Benjamin Nurkić
0365 Local Government Elena Vodyanitskaya
0367 Mandate Andrzej Jackiewicz and Artur Olechno
0370 Legislative Body Members Patricia García Majado
0371 Immunity of Legislative Body Members Zoltán Szente
0372 Remuneration of Legislative Body Members Bastian Michel
0377 Control of Military Forces William Underwood
0381 Militias Niccolò Ridi
0382 Mining Sara Ghebremusse
0384 History and Theory of Mixed Governments Cesare Pinelli
0390 History and Concepts of Emergency Giacomo Delledonne
0391 National Objectives Fernando Leal
0393 Natural Resources Oliver C Ruppel and Ruda Murray
0394 Naturalization Dana Schmalz
0395 State of Necessity Asem Khalil
0396 Neutrality Ioannis A Tassopoulos
0397 No Confidence Vote Anna Dziedzic
0399 Nuclear Weapons P Sean Morris
0400 Oath Constantinos Kombos, Athena Herodotou and Stamatina Stergiou
0401 Ombudsman W John Hopkins
0405 Pardon Power Andrew Novak
0407 Parliamentary Committees Helle Krunke
0408 Parliamentary Monarchy Rainer Grote
0409 Parliamentary Privileges David Clark
0410 Parliamentary Systems Rainer Grote
0411 Principle of Participation John Morison and Adam Harkens
0414 Plebiscite Francesco Biagi
0418 Political Crimes Bedirhan Erdem, Uğur Orhan
0423 Popular Sovereignty Anthony Murphy
0426 Theory of Positive Law Wálber Araujo Carneiro
0428 Precedent Rodrigo Camarena González
0429 Preemption Ian B Lee
0430 Presidential Systems Kevin Y L Tan
0439 Public Interest Leanne Cochrane and John Morison
0446 Reasonableness Riccardo Perona
0450 Removal of Officials Constantinos Kombos and Athena Herodotou
0454 Retroactive Application of Laws Manuel Brunner
0455 Revolution Chiara Redaelli
0458 Rule of Law Naiade El-Khoury and Rüdiger Wolfrum
0459 Secession Elisa Novic and Priya Urs
0464 Self-Determination Fernando Hernández Fradejas
0466 Separation of Powers Piotr Mikuli
0468 Socialism Fernando Muñoz
0471 Spending Power Guilherme Augusto Azevedo Palu
0472 Standing (Locus Standi) Stephan Koloßa
0473 State Action Doctrine Stephan Jaggi
0480 State Sovereignty and States’ Rights Anna Sophia Tiedeke
0483 Name of a State  Manuel Brunner
0485 Stateless Person Natalie Baird
0486 Statutory Law Asem Khalil
0488 Supremacy / Primacy Maria Elvira Méndez Pinedo
0493 Freedom of Teaching Valentina Cardinale
0494 Regulation of Telecommunication Yasuo Hasebe
0495 Territoriality Prisca Feihle
0496 Terrorism Cristina Gazzetta
0500 Universalism Matthias Mahlmann
0504 State of War Momchil Milanov
0516 Powers and Jurisdiction of Constitutional Courts / Supreme Courts Peter Bussjaeger, Mirella Johler
0517 Constitutional Remedies Leonardo Álvarez Álvarez
0518 Constitutional Courts / Supreme Courts, General Virgílio Afonso da Silva
0519 Supreme Court of Argentina (Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación) Sebastian Elias
0520 Constitutional Court of Austria (Verfassungsgerichtshof) Maria Bertel and Esther Happacher
0522 Supreme Federal Tribunal of Brazil (Supremo Tribunal Federal) André Nunes Chaib and Gilmar Ferreira Mendes
0523 Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) Lawrence David
0524 Constitutional Court of Colombia (Corte Constitucional De Colombia) David Landau
0525 Supreme Court of Justice of Costa Rica (Corte Suprema de Justicia de Costa Rica) Ana María Ruiz González
0526 Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt (Al-Mahkamah al-Dustūrīyah al-’Ulyā) Islam Mohammed
0527 Constitutional Council of France (Conseil Constitutionnel) Guillaume Tusseau
0528 Federal Constitutional Court of Germany (Bundesverfassungsgericht)  Dieter Grimm
0529 Supreme Court of India Mahendra Prasad Singh
0531 Supreme Court of Israel (Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) Suzie Navot
0532 Constitutional Court of Italy (La Corte Costituzionale Della Repubblica Italiana) Justin O Frosini
0533 Supreme Court of Mexico (Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación) José María Serna de La Garza
0534 Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Konstitutsionnyi Sud Rossiiskoi Federatsii) Bernd Wieser
0535 Constitutional Court of South Africa James Fowkes
0536 Constitutional Court of Korea Yoon Jin Shin
0537 Constitutional Court of Spain (Tribunal Constitucional de España) Xabier Arzoz
0538 Constitutional Court of Taiwan (Judicial Yuan) Wen-Chen Chang
0539 Constitutional Court of Thailand (San Rattha Thammanun) Henning Glaser
0540 Constitutional Court of Turkey (Anayasa Mahkemesi) Selin Esen
0541 Supreme Court of the United States Charles H Baron
0542 AWACS I (Ger) Katja S Ziegler
0543 Beit Sourik Village Council v Government of Israel and Commander of the IDF Forces in the West Bank Case (Isr) Isaac Becker and Yoram Rabin
0544 Brown v Board of Education of Topeka Case (US) Stephen M Feldman
0546 Case 8/1996 (Egypt) Mohamed A ‘Arafa
0548 Citizens United v Federal Election Commission Case (US) Robert A Sedler
0549 Decision SU-039 Case (1997) (Colom) Felipe A Galvis Castro
0550 Decision T-025 (2004) (Colom) David Landau
0551 Decision T-426 (1992) (Colom) David Landau
0552 Bush v Gore Case (US) Rafael A Porrata-Doria Jr
0553 Government of the Republic of South Africa v Grootboom Case (S Afr) Eric C Christiansen
0554 IC Golak Nath and Others Case (India) Arghya Sengupta
0555 Lissaboner Vertrag Case (Ger) Justin Collings
0556 Lüth Case (Ger) Stephan Jaggi
0557 Marbury v Madison Case (US) Sam Kalen
0558 Minerva Mills Case (India) S Ravindra Bhat
0559 New York Times v Sullivan Case (US) Adrienne Stone
0560 Public Committee against Torture in Israel v State of Israel Case (Isr) Yoram Rabin and Assaf Meydani
0561 R v Big M Drug Mart Ltd Case (Can) Lawrence David
0562 R v Sparrow Case (Can) Geneviève Murray
0564 Roe v Wade Case (US) Merle Weiner
0565 SP Gupta v Union of India Case (India) Dominic Henley Katter
0566 S v Makwanyane and Another Case (S Afr) Georgia Alida du Plessis
0568 Caroline von Monaco Case (Ger) Paula Gorzoni
0569 Judges at Constitutional Courts / Supreme Courts Marie Gren
0571 Relation of Constitutional Courts to Supreme Courts Giacomo Delledonne
0572 Relation of Constitutional Courts / Supreme Courts to ECtHR Kanstantsin Dzehtsiarou and Natasa Mavronicola
0573 Relation of Constitutional Courts / Supreme Courts to EU Courts Darinka Piqani
0575 Clerks of Constitutional Courts / Supreme Courts Akiko Ejima
0576 Decentralization Marta Portocarrero
0578 Taxes Riccardo de Caria
0583 National Implementation of International Court Decisions James AR Nafziger
0584 Principles and Objectives of Constitutions Nelson Dordelly-Rosales
0585 Public-Private Partnership Raquel Carvalho
0588 Types of Constitutions Caroline von Gall
0589 Islamic Constitutionalism Valentina Rita Scotti
0591 Legal Cultures Tanja Herklotz
0592 Magna Carta (1215) Rainer Grote
0596 Charter of Medina Ghazaleh Faridzadeh
0597 Mizrahi Bank Case (Isr) Suzie Navot
0598 Ban on Political Parties Justin O Frosini and Sara Pennicino
0622 Chinese Constitutionalism: Five-Power Constitution Ernest Caldwell
0630 Semi-Presidential Systems Andriy Tyushka
0631 Supreme Court of Japan (Saikō-Saibansho) Hans-Peter Marutschke
0632 French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) Rainer Grote
0633 Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) Rafael David Loaiza Bigott
0635 Bill of Rights (1689) Rainer Grote
0636 Bill of Rights Ioanna Tourkochoriti
0638 Spanish Constitution (1812) Gonzalo Villalta Puig
0639 Ottoman Constitution (1876) Ergun Özbudun
0640 Belgian Constitution (1831) Yseult Marique
0641 Transnational Constitutional Law Catarina Santos Botelho
0644 Constitutional Courts / Supreme Courts as Positive Legislators Massimo Fichera
0645 Constitutional Court of the Republic of Albania Adea Pirdeni and Darinka Piqani
0648 Effectiveness M Elvira Méndez-Pinedo and Antoni Abat i Ninet
0649 Prohibition of Torture Natasha Simonsen
0650 Non-State Justice Systems Siddharth Peter de Souza
0651 Varios 912 / 2010 Case (Mexican Supreme Court) Mónica Castillejos-Aragón
0652 Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Rights James R May and Erin Daly
0653 Constitutional Protection of the Autonomy of Ethnic Groups Valeria Piergigli
0670 Critical Legal Studies and Comparative Constitutional Law Maxim Bönnemann and Laura Jung
0671 Constitutionalism and Nomadic People William E Conklin
0673 Constitutions and Sharia Provisions Valentina Rita Scotti
0674 Constitutional Moment Antonia Baraggia
0675 International Human Rights Law and Municipal Law Lucas Lixinski
0676 Supranational Constitutional Courts Federico Fabbrini and Miguel Poiares Maduro
0677 Electoral Courts Elena Bindi & Giammaria Milani
0678 Electoral Commission Barry Solaiman
0682 Electoral Districts Grzegorz Kuca
0683 Secret Ballot Grzegorz Kuca
0684 Right to Form Political Parties Matteo Cosulich and Giorgio Grasso
0685 Suffrage Helle Krunke and Sune Klinge
0686 Right to Vote Miguel Ángel Presno Linera
0687 Women’s Suffrage Valentina Rita Scotti
0688 Universal Suffrage Marek Domin
0690 Religious Courts Tanja Herklotz
0691 Military Courts P Sean Morris
0692 Tax Courts Johannes Klamet and Nicole Herrmann
0694 Direct and Indirect Discrimination Jimena Suarez Ibarolla, Gautam Bhatia
0696 Social Security Gerald G Sander, Daniel Zimmermann
0697 Systemic Discrimination Päivi J Neuvonen
0698 Right to Access to Environmental Information Heloísa Oliveira
0699 Majority Corrado Caruso
0700 Drittwirkung Martin Borowski
0709 Pouvoir Constituant Tamara El Khoury
0711 Parliamentary Sovereignty Ángel Aday Jiménez Alemán
0735 Freedom of Movement  Peter Thalmann
0736 Boumediene v Bush Case (US) Andrew Friedman
0738 Ne bis in idem Gaiane Nuridzhanian
0742 Decision T-760 (2008) (Colom) Alicia Ely Yamin
0744 Relation of Religion to State and Society Patricia Santos-Rodríguez
0745 Cultural Diversity Anabela Costa Leão
0749 Veto Barış Bahçeci
0753 Right to Minimum Level of Subsistence Styliani (Stella) Christoforidou
0758 Suspension of Political Rights Nils Schaks
0759 Economic Freedom Fighters and Others v Speaker of the National Assembly and Others Cases (S Afr) Francois Venter
0770 Relation of Constitutional Courts / Supreme Courts to IACtHR Tom Gerald Daly
0772 Right to Bear Arms Cem Tecimer
0773 Royal Prerogative  Leander Beinlich
0775 Custom (Customary Law) Fatima Osman and Siddharth Peter de Souza
0776 Attorney General  Constantinos Kombos
0779 Natural Law Theories and Constitutionalism Fernando Simón Yarza
0783 Constitutional Adjudication of the Privy Council P Sean Morris
0784 Independent Jamaica Council for Human Rights Ltd and Others v Marshall-Burnett Case (Privy Council UK) P Sean Morris
0788 Surrogacy Nikos Koumoutzis
0791 Sunset Clause Antonios Kouroutakis
0792 Identity Pietro Faraguna
0793 Entick v Carrington Case (1765) (UK) Dominic Henley Katter
0795 Intergenerational Justice Rainer Grote
0802 Constitutional Court of Hungary (Magyarország Alkotmánybírósága) Katalin Kelemen and Max Steuer
0803 Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (Ústavný súd Slovenskej republiky) Max Steuer
0804 Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Ustavni sud Bosne i Hercegovine) Nedžad Smailagić
0820 Judicial Review of Presidential Re-Election Amendments in Colombia Samuel Issacharoff, Santiago García-Jaramillo and Vicente F Benítez-Rojas
0821 Constitutional Court of Portugal (Tribunal Constitucional) Ana Raquel Gonçalves Moniz
0825 Constitutional Court of Cape Verde José Pina-Delgado
0827 Constitutional Court of Morocco Nadir Elmoumni
0829 Supreme Court of Ghana Julia Selman Ayetey
0830 Supreme People’s Court (Zuìgao Rénmín Fayuàn) Ruiping Ye
0831 Right to Science Cesare PR Romano and Andrea Boggio
0836 Constitutional Court of the Republic of Serbia (Ustavni sud Republike Srbije) Violeta Beširević
0839 Supreme Court of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Harsh Mahaseth
0844 Constitutional Court of Peru (Tribunal Constitucional Del Perú) Luis A Lopez Zamora
0845 Constitutional Resilience András Jakab
0846 Codification of Constitutional Amendments Daniel Wolff
0859 Constitutional Court of Romania (Curtea Constituțională a României) Anthony Matthew Dima Murphy