1In ordinary language, ‘gender’ is a complex word that carries multiple meanings. It is often contrasted with the word ‘sex’, which is taken to refer to a biological reality. Gender, on the other hand, is understood as the ‘social construction of sex’—although this understanding has itself been challenged (Mikkola). Historically, ‘gender discrimination’ has operated through the construction of stereotypes, which have been used to justify denial of access to equal rights in public and private spheres (‘direct discrimination’), or to shape public and private spheres...
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