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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law [MPECCoL]

Freedom of the Press

Norikazu Kawagishi

From: Oxford Constitutions (http://oxcon.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved.date: 04 July 2022

Censorship — Freedom of expression — Freedom of the press — Hate speech

General Editors: Rainer Grote, Frauke Lachenmann, Rüdiger Wolfrum.
Managing Editor: Ana Harvey

1. The meaning of ‘freedom of the press’ may vary depending on the meaning of the word ‘press’. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, ‘press’ means ‘a machine for printing’ and ‘a place of business centred on the printing press, in which all the stages and processes of printing books, journals, etc. are carried out’. In this sense, freedom of the press signifies freedom of expression through printed media. The press may also refer to ‘[n]ewspapers, journals, and periodical literature collectively’ or ‘[j]ournalists, newspaper reporters collectively’. The...
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