1 Affirmative action usually refers to laws, practices, and policies that aim at bringing members of an underrepresented group to a higher level of participation (Greenawalt 17). Its purpose may be seen from two perspectives: either backward-looking affirmative action as a means to compensate past discrimination (deontological arguments), or forward-looking affirmative action as a way of building a better future (utilitarian arguments) (Stroud 386). Hence, affirmative action may either redress past or actual disadvantages faced by some groups of people on the...
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full
to access all content.