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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law [MPECCoL]

Direct Democracy

Anna Gamper

From: Oxford Constitutions (http://oxcon.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved.date: 29 July 2021

Subject(s):
Comparative constitutional law — Direct democracy — Representative democracy

General Editors: Rainer Grote, Frauke Lachenmann, Rüdiger Wolfrum.
Managing Editor: Ana Harvey

1. Direct democracy is a term coined by legal and political theory, but also used explicitly by a number of constitutions worldwide. Its obvious terminological counterpart is indirect or representative democracy. However, modern democratic theories demarcate direct democracy not just from representative democracy, but also from deliberative and participatory democracy. According to the first classification, direct democracy is a form of democracy in which the demos expresses its political will without any intermediate elected body. In most cases, however,...
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