1 Representation constitutes a paradox (Pitkin 8–9). Simultaneously, it denotes a presence and an absence (Brito Vieira and Runciman 4–5). Re-presenting something (or someone) makes something present that however is not actually present. In this sense, representative democracy displays a double paradox. It adds to the paradox of representation a further paradox pertaining to the relationship of representation and democracy. If the people do not rule directly (direct democracy) but through elected representatives, the institutions that are necessary to establish...
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