1. The extraterritorial application of domestic constitutional provisions refers to domestic judicial scrutiny of whether a state is acting in conformity with the substantive provisions of the constitution vis-à-vis individuals situated outside of its domestic territory. Various models of extraterritorial constitutional protections are put forward: distinctions based upon citizenship and enemy status (see eg Eisentrager (1950) (US); Enemies and Enemy Subjects); universal (Milanovic) and functional tests (Boumediene v Bush Case (US) (2008)); and those based upon...
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