1. Defence and foreign policy may seem unlikely powers to be vested in the constituent states of federations. However, from the very birth of modern federalism, constituent states have played a limited yet significant role in these most federal of responsibilities (component federal units). Although powers in relation to defence have become the exception (powers of foreign policy and national defence in federal systems), constituent state involvement in the field of foreign policy has now become the norm in most federal and quasi-federal systems. 2. Early federal...
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