1. It is commonplace today to distinguish between federalism conceived as a normative or ideological commitment to the federal principle, ‘federal systems’ as forms of government in which the federal principle is instantiated, and a wide array of particular kinds of federal system (King 19–21; Elazar (1987) 38–64; Watts 8). Among these specific kinds, a historically significant distinction has often been drawn between ‘federations’ and ‘confederations’ (Sawer 8; Lister 1; Hueglin and Fenna (2015) 19–21; Kincaid (2011) vol. I, 4; Halberstam 578–83; Føllesdal), and...
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