Immunity of Heads of State under Constitutional Law
- Customary international law — Decisions of international courts — International organizations — Ius gentium — Diplomatic protection — Foreign Affairs — Foreign affairs
Published under the direction of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law.
General Editors: Rainer Grote, Frauke Lachenmann, Rüdiger Wolfrum.
1 Heads of state traditionally enjoy immunity before domestic courts (heads of state and government). This immunity is applicable both in criminal and civil matters. In criminal matters, a head of state usually enjoys broad immunity from legal proceedings of any kind, including trials. In practice, heads of state may only be prosecuted for serious crimes, such as treason, which, in turn, may only be adjudicated by a higher court in the state concerned. In civil matters, a head of state enjoys immunity for official acts committed while in office. 2 There are two...