1 In almost all federal constitutional systems, a rule exists for resolving conflicts between otherwise valid laws by different orders of government. Commonly, though not universally, the laws enacted by a national government take precedence over—and pre-empt, or preclude the operation of—conflicting laws enacted at a subnational level. For example, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany: 23 May 1949 (as Amended to 13 July 2017) (Ger) (‘German Basic Law’ or ‘GG’) provides, in Article 31, that ‘Federal law shall take precedence over Land law’...
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