1. The relationship between constitutional courts/supreme courts exercising constitutional jurisdiction and European Union (‘EU’) courts may take different forms but the main formal avenue for cooperation is the preliminary reference procedure as laid down in Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (2007) (‘TFEU’) (constitutional courts / supreme courts, general; powers and jurisdiction of constitutional courts / supreme courts; European Union, Court of Justice and General Court). However, other various ‘implicit, informal, and indirect’...
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