1. The German expression Drittwirkung (in literal translation ‘third-party effect’) refers to effects of constitutional rights of one private party for another private party. This is to say that if one private party (individual, private corporation, or other non-state-actor) is the holder of a certain constitutional right against the state, this constitutional right has Drittwirkung if and when it gives rise to legal effects for other private parties. Since this phenomenon refers to legal effects between and among private parties on the horizontal level (as...
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