The term “citizenship” bears multiple interrelated meanings in law, political theory, and sociology. Citizenship may denote a status, or a relationship, or an activity, or a set of rights, or a set of responsibilities. Citizenship may serve as the equivalent of “nationality” in the sense of international law, attributing people to different countries, or it may indicate a preferred status in society, full or first-class citizenship, not necessarily available to all who possess the country’s nationality.1 As will appear below, citizenship has carried both these...
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