The Arab Spring brought the armed forces of all regional countries back to the center of attention. The call for a dawlah madanīyah or “civil state” in the streets, media, and politics clearly challenged the military character of many of the then-existing regimes.1 At the turn of the year 2010/2011, Libya was still firmly under the control of Colonel Muʿammar al-Qadhdhāfī, who had overthrown King Idrīs in 1969 and continued to use his military rank like a title until his death. Ḥusnī Mubārak had served as Commander of the Egyptian Air Force before he became Anwar...
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