During the demonstrations—and, in some cases, even revolutions—that broke out in the Arab world between the end of 2010 and the beginning of 2011, the protesters, largely composed of young people, called for profound constitutional and political reforms. These reforms included constraints on the prerogatives of heads of state, and the strengthening of the independence and powers of parliaments, judiciaries, and constitutional courts. In a nutshell, they hoped to reinforce the separation and balance of powers. This aspiration, however, was only partially achieved,...
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