Since the onset of the “Arab Spring”,1 several countries in the Middle East and North Africa region have undergone constitutional reform. While in some of these countries new constitutions were introduced—Egypt (2014; 2012), Morocco (2011), Syria (2012), and Tunisia (2014)—in others, such as Bahrain (2012) and Jordan (2011),2 existing constitutions were amended.3 Drafters of constitutional texts need to address a number of questions. One such question is the relationship between international law and the national law of these states.4 This chapter examines the...
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