This chapter examines the Indian Constitution’s federal scheme. It begins with an overview of the basic features of the federal framework, with particular emphasis on distribution of powers—legislative, executive, and judicial—between the Central Government and the regional governments (that is, States), the supremacy of the Constitution, and dispute resolution mechanisms for evaluating the competence of the two governments for exercising their powers or functions. It then considers the centralised character of Indian federalism by focusing on the identity of States, legislative competence, and regional emergencies. The chapter concludes by reflecting on how the federal arrangement should be understood and judged.
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