This chapter examines the constitutional framework for the structure of local government in India, particularly the background, scope, and content of the Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth Constitutional Amendments, 1992 to the Indian Constitution. The Seventy-third Amendment required States to create self-governing, elected village councils, or panchayats, while the Seventy-fourth Amendment required the creation of elected municipalities in urban areas. The history of local self-government in India is discussed, before turning to a discussion of the constitutional position of local government in the country after Independence. The constitutional and statutory provisions on local government are considered, along with the motivations and the context behind the Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth Constitutional Amendments. The chapter explores issues of structure and implementation in local government, the functions and powers of local governments, and the case of industrial townships. Finally, it evaluates the functions and powers of local bodies and their place in the federal framework.