This chapter examines relevant provisions of the Indian Constitution with respect to public employment and service law. In particular, it considers the Indian Constitution’s regulation of civil servants and the constitutional controversies surrounding the often-competing ideals of bureaucratic independence and bureaucratic responsiveness. After providing a historical overview of the Indian bureaucratic structure, the chapter turns to the debates in the Indian Constituent Assembly over the place for an independent civil service in a modern, democratic nation such as India. It then considers the constitutional status of the civil service, paying special attention to provisions relating to terms of service and constitutional protections for civil servants. It also explores the question of administrative reforms and their implications for the civil service in India.