This volume, the first of a series of books on African constitutionalism, is devoted to the well-known issue of separation of powers and its contemporary characteristics on the continent. How do different systems in Africa understand and use the doctrine, and how successful are they in achieving its rationale of constraining the abuse of power? These questions are venerable for the good reason that they represent great and enduring problems for states to solve. Africa has long been troubled by excessive centralized power, and the separation of that power is a time-honoured response; as the continent turns increasingly to the task of building better states, the finer details of such responses take centre stage. The chapters in this volume consider how Africa’s executives, legislatures, and judiciaries relate to one another, and also consider the growing cast of other institutions that are joining the traditional tripartite picture in Africa, as elsewhere.