Part I Military Dictatorships, 4 Stage-managing Security Sector Reform in Indonesia
Agus Widjojo, Andrew Ellis
Edited By: Zoltan Barany, Sumit Bisarya, Sujit Choudhry, Richard Stacey
This chapter studies security sector reform (SSR) in Indonesia. Military reform in Indonesia after its transition to democracy in 1999 was heavily influenced by the legacies of the military's origins as freedom fighters and guerrilla units, the military's long-standing open and active influence in politics under authoritarian rule, and the specific use by the military of the separatist threats of Aceh, East Timor, and Papua as justification for its combination of civilian and military functions. For the democratic transition to succeed, it was essential to gain the acceptance and acquiescence of the security sector for the wider process of change. In the Indonesian case, civilian politicians during the transition allowed the Indonesian Army (the TNI) itself to shape changes in its role through its own initiatives from 1998 onwards.