The word ‘state’ (as well as similar words in other languages: the German ‘Staat’, the French ‘État’, the Italian ‘Stato’, etc) has many meanings even in the legal language, which is generally technically accurate and unambiguous. As such, it allows for frequent misunderstandings. An important distinction of meaning deserves underlining in view of the focus of this chapter. On the one hand, the word ‘state’ is frequently used to refer to the free and independent association of a people in a territory under an organized and stable authority. On the other hand,...
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