‘The most natural privilege of man, next to the right of acting for himself, is that of combining his exertions with those of his fellow creatures and of acting in common with them. The right of association therefore appears to me almost as inalienable in its nature as the right of personal liberty’—arguably this statement by Alexis de Tocqueville in ‘Democracy in America’1 is the most concise depiction of the subject of this chapter. Associative rights cover those constitutional guarantees which deal with joint actions of individuals. The focus is on the...
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