Unlike most other states, Hawaii has a statewide, centralized judiciary under the administrative control of the supreme court; there are no county or city courts. From 1966 until 1982, the Hawaii Supreme Court, referred to as the Richardson Court after Chief Justice William S. Richardson, was known for its judicial activism, particularly for breaking new legal ground in the areas of water rights (see Article XI, Section 7) and public access to the shoreline and land created by lava flows (see the introductory remarks to Article XI). Recently, the University of...
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