Find out more
Jump to Content
Jump to Main Navigation
See all online law products
Take a Tour
Constitutional instruments and materials
Constitutional foundation documents
Constitutionally related documents
National instruments and materials
Commentary and analysis
Constitutional overviews (by jurisdiction)
United States [us]
District of Columbia
United States Minor Outlying Islands [um]
United States Freely Associated States
Constitutional law and processes
Cultures and people
Politics and government
Email this content
Copy this link, or click below to email it to a friend
Email this content
or copy the link directly:
The link was not copied. Your current browser may not support copying via this button.
Link copied successfully
Subscriber sign in
You could not be signed in, please check and try again.
Please enter your Username
Please enter your Password
Don't have an account?
Sign in via your Institution
You could not be signed in, please check and try again.
Sign in with your library card
Please enter your library card number
View translated passages only
Oxford Law Citator
Part One The History of the Michigan Constitution
The History and Development of the Michigan Constitution
The Michigan Constitution in a Comparative Perspective
Constitutional Revision: 1850
In the Wake of the Civil War
Constitutional Change for the Twentieth Century
The Introduction of Direct Democracy
Amendments to the Constitution of 1908
Attempts At Revision
The 1961–1962 Constitutional Convention
The Michigan Constitution of 1963
Part Two The Michigan Constitution and Commentary
Art.I The Declaration of Rights
s.1 Political power.
s.2 Equal protection; discrimination.
Rational Basis Scrutiny
Heightened or Intermediate Scrutiny
s.3 Assembly, consultation, instruction, petition.
s.4 Freedom of worship and religious belief; appropriations.
s.5 Freedom of speech and of press.
s.6 Bearing of arms.
s.7 Military power subordinate to civil power.
s.8 Quartering of soldiers.
s.9 Slavery and involuntary servitude.
s.10 Attainder; ex post facto laws; impairment of contracts.
s.11 Searches and seizures.
s.12 Habeas corpus.
s.13 Conduct of suits in person or by counsel.
s.14 Jury trials.
s.15 Double jeopardy; bailable offenses; commencement of trial if bail denied; bail hearing; effective date.
s.16 Bail; fines; punishments; detention of witnesses.
s.17 Self-incrimination; due process of law; fair treatment at investigations.
Hearings and Investigations
s.18 Witnesses; competency, religious beliefs.
s.19 Libels, truth as defense.
s.20 Rights of accused in criminal proceedings.
Nature of the Accusation
Assistance of Counsel
Right to an Appeal
s.21 Imprisonment for debt.
s.22 Treason; definition, evidence.
s.23 Enumeration of rights not to deny others.
s.24 Rights of crime victims; enforcement; assessment against convicted defendants.
s.1 Qualifications of electors; residence.
s.2 Mental incompetence; imprisonment.
s.3 Presidential electors; residence.
s.4 Place and manner of elections.
s.5 Time of elections.
s.6 Voters on tax limit increases or bond issues.
s.7 Boards of canvassers.
s.9 Initiative and referendum; limitations; appropriations; petitions.
s.10 Limitations on terms of office of members of the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Michigan.
Art.III General Government
s.1 Seat of government.
s.2 Separation of powers of government.
s.3 Great seal.
s.5 Intergovernmental agreements; service by public officers and employees.
s.6 Internal improvements.
s.7 Common law and statutes, continuance.
s.8 Opinions on constitutionality by supreme court.
Art.IV Legislative Branch
s.1 Legislative power.
s.2 Senators, number, term.
s.3 Representatives, number, term; contiguity of districts.
s.4 Annexation or merger with a city.
s.5 Island areas, contiguity.
s.6 Commission on legislative apportionment.
s.7 Legislators; qualifications, removal from district.
s.8 Ineligibility of government officers and employees.
s.9 Civil appointments, ineligibility of legislators.
s.10 Legislators and state officers, government contracts, conflict of interest.
s.11 Legislators privileged from civil arrest and civil process; limitation; questioning for speech in either house prohibited.
s.12 State officers compensation commission.
s.13 Legislature; time of convening, sine die adjournment, measures carried over.
s.14 Quorum; powers of less than quorum.
s.15 Legislative council.
s.16 Legislature; officers, rules of procedure, expulsion of members.
s.17 Committees; record of votes, public inspection, notice of hearings.
s.18 Journal of proceedings; record of votes, dissents.
s.19 Record of votes on elections and advice and consent.
s.20 Open meetings.
s.21 Adjournments, limitations.
s.23 Style of laws.
s.24 Laws; object, title, amendments changing purpose.
s.25 Revision and amendment of laws; title references, publication of entire sections.
s.26 Bills; printing, possession, reading, vote on passage.
s.27 Laws, effective date.
s.28 Bills, subjects at special session.
s.29 Local or special acts.
s.30 Appropriations; local or private purposes.
s.31 General appropriation bills; priority, statement of estimated revenue.
s.32 Laws imposing taxes.
s.33 Bills passed; approval by governor or veto, reconsideration by legislature.
s.34 Bills, referendum.
s.35 Publication and distribution of laws and judicial decisions.
s.36 General revision of laws; compilation of laws.
s.37 Administrative rules, suspension by legislative committee.
s.38 Vacancies in office.
s.39 Continuity of government in emergencies.
s.40 Alcoholic beverages; age requirement; liquor control commission; excise tax; local option.
s.42 Ports and port districts; incorporation, internal.
s.43 Bank and trust company laws.
s.44 Trial by jury in civil cases.
s.45 Indeterminate sentences.
s.46 Death penalty.
s.47 Chaplains in state institutions.
s.48 Disputes concerning public employees.
s.49 Hours and conditions of employment.
s.50 Atomic and new forms of energy.
s.51 Public health and general welfare.
s.52 Natural resources; conservation, pollution, impairment, destruction.
s.53 Auditor general; appointment, qualifications, term, removal, post audits.
s.54 Limitations on terms of office of state legislators.
Art.V Executive Branch
s.1 Executive power.
s.2 Principal departments.
s.3 Single heads of departments; appointment, term.
s.4 Commissions or agencies for less than two years.
s.5 Examining or licensing board members, qualifications.
s.6 Advice and consent to appointments.
s.7 Vacancies in office; filling, senatorial disapproval of appointees.
s.8 Principal departments, supervision of governor; information from state officers.
s.9 Principal departments, location.
s.10 Removal or suspension of officers; grounds, report.
s.11 Provisional appointments to fill vacancies due to suspension.
s.12 Military powers.
s.13 Elections to fill vacancies in legislature.
s.14 Reprieves, commutations and pardons.
s.15 Extra sessions of legislature.
s.16 Legislature other than at seat of government.
s.17 Messages and recommendations to legislature.
s.18 Budget; general and deficiency appropriation bills.
s.19 Disapproval of items in appropriation bills.
s.20 Reductions in expenditures.
s.21 State elective executive officers; term, election.
s.22 Governor and lieutenant governor, qualifications.
s.23 State elective executive officers, compensation.
s.24 Executive residence.
s.25 Lieutenant governor; president of the senate, tie vote, duties.
s.26 Succession to governorship.
s.27 Salary of successor.
s.28 State transportation commission; establishment; purpose; appointment, qualifications, and terms of members; director of state transportation department.
s.29 Civil rights commission; members, term, duties, appropriation.
s.30 Limitations on terms of executive officers.
Art.VI Judicial Branch
s.1 Judicial power in court of justice; divisions.
s.2 Justices of the supreme court; number, term, nomination, election.
s.3 Chief justice; court administrator; other assistants.
s.4 General superintending control over courts; writs; appellate jurisdiction.
s.5 Court rules; distinctions between law and equity; master in chancery.
s.6 Decisions and dissents; writing, contents.
s.7 Staff; budget; salaries of justices; fees.
s.8 Court of appeals; election of judges, divisions.
s.9 Judges of court of appeals, terms.
s.10 Jurisdiction, practice and procedure of court of appeals.
s.11 Circuit courts; judicial circuits, sessions, number of judges.
s.12 Circuit judges; nomination, election, term.
s.13 Circuit courts; jurisdiction, writs, supervisory control over inferior courts.
s.14 County clerks; duties, vacancies; prosecuting attorneys, vacancies.
s.15 Probate courts; districts, jurisdiction.
s.16 Probate judges; nomination, election, terms.
s.17 Judicial salaries and fees.
s.18 Salaries; uniformity, changes during term.
s.19 Courts of record; seal, qualifications of judges.
s.20 Removal of domicile of judge.
s.21 Ineligibility for other office.
s.22 Incumbent judges, affidavit of candidacy.
s.23 Judicial vacancies, filling; appointee, term; successor; new offices.
s.24 Incumbent judges, ballot designation.
s.25 Removal of judges from office.
s.26 Circuit court commissioners and justices of the peace, abolition; courts of limited jurisdiction.
s.27 Power of appointment to public office.
s.28 Administrative action, review.
s.29 Conservators of the peace.
s.30 Judicial tenure commission; selection; terms; duties; power of supreme court.
Art.VII Local Government
s.1 Counties; corporate character, powers and immunities.
s.2 County charters.
s.3 Reduction of size of county.
s.4 County officers; terms, combination.
s.5 Offices at county seat.
s.6 Sheriffs; security, responsibility for acts, ineligibility for other office.
s.7 Boards of supervisors; members.
s.8 Legislative, administrative, and other powers and duties of boards.
s.9 Compensation of county officers.
s.10 Removal of county seat.
s.11 Indebtedness, limitation.
s.12 Navigable streams, permission to bridge or dam.
s.13 Consolidation of counties, approval by electors.
s.14 Organization and consolidation of townships.
s.15 County intervention in public utility service and rate proceedings.
s.16 Highways, bridges, culverts, airports; road tax limitation.
s.17 Townships; corporate character, powers and immunities.
s.18 Township officers; term, powers and duties.
s.19 Township public utility franchises.
s.20 Townships, dissolution; villages as cities.
s.21 Cities and villages; incorporation, taxes, indebtedness.
s.22 Charters, resolutions, ordinances; enumeration of powers.
s.23 Parks, boulevards, cemeteries, hospitals.
s.24 Public service facilities.
s.25 Public utilities; acquisition, franchises, sale.
s.26 Cities and villages, loan of credit.
s.27 Metropolitan governments and authorities.
s.28 Governmental functions and powers; joint administration, costs and credits, transfers.
s.29 Highways, streets, alleys, public places; control, use by public utilities.
s.30 Franchises and licenses, duration.
s.31 Vacation or alteration of roads, streets, alleys, public places.
s.32 Budgets, public hearing.
s.33 Removal of elected officers.
s.34 Construction of constitution and law concerning counties, townships, cities, villages.
s.1 Encouragement of education.
s.2 Free public elementary and secondary schools; discrimination.
s.3 State board of education; duties.
s.4 Higher education institutions; appropriations, accounting, public sessions of boards.
s.5 University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Wayne State University; controlling boards.
s.6 Other institutions of higher education, controlling boards.
s.7 Community and junior colleges; state board, members, terms, vacancies.
s.8 Services for handicapped persons.
s.9 Public libraries, fines.
Art.IX Finance and Taxation
s.1 Taxes for state expenses.
s.2 Power of taxation, relinquishment.
s.3 Property taxation; uniformity; assessments; limitations; classes; approval of legislature.
s.4 Exemption of religious or educational nonprofit organizations.
s.5 Assessment of property of public service businesses.
s.6 Real and tangible personal property; limitation on general ad valorem taxes; adoption and alteration of separate tax limitations; exceptions to limitations; property tax on school district extending into two or more counties.
s.7 Income tax.
s.8 Sales and use taxes.
s.9 Use of specific taxes on fuels for transportation purposes; authorization of indebtedness and issuance of obligations.
s.10 Sales tax; distribution to local governments.
s.11 State school aid fund; source; distribution; guarantee to local school district.
s.12 Evidence of state indebtedness.
s.13 Public bodies, borrowing power.
s.14 State borrowing; short term.
s.15 Long-term borrowing by state.
s.16 State loans to school districts.
s.17 Payments from state treasury.
s.18 State credit.
s.19 Subscription to or interest in stock by state prohibited; exceptions.
s.20 Deposit of state money in certain financial institutions; requirements.
s.21 Accounting for public moneys.
s.22 Examination and adjustment of claims against state.
s.23 Financial records; statement of revenues and expenditures.
s.24 Public pension plans and retirement systems, obligation.
s.25 Voter approval of increased local taxes; prohibitions; emergency conditions; repayment of bonded indebtedness guaranteed; implementation of section.
s.26 Limitation on taxes; revenue limit; refunding or transferring excess revenues; exceptions to revenue limitation; adjustment of state revenue and spending limits.
s.27 Exceeding revenue limit; conditions.
s.28 Limitation on expenses of state government.
s.29 State financing of activities or services required of local government by state law.
s.30 Reduction of state spending paid to units of local government.
s.31 Levying tax or increasing rate of existing tax; maximum tax rate on new base; increase in assessed valuation of property; exceptions to limitations.
s.32 Suit to enforce sections 25 to 31 .
s.33 Definitions applicable to sections 25 to 32 .
s.34 Implementation of sections 25 to 33 .
s.35 Michigan natural resources trust fund.
s.36 Tax on tobacco products; dedication of proceeds.
s.36 Michigan state parks endowment fund.
s.1 Disabilities of coverture abolished; separate property of wife; dower.
s.2 Eminent domain; compensation.
s.3 Homestead and personalty, exemption from process.
s.5 State lands.
s.6 Resident aliens, property rights.
Art.XI Public Officers and Employment
s.1 Oath of public officers.
s.2 Terms of office of state and county officers.
s.3 Extra compensation.
s.4 Custodian of public moneys; eligibility to office, accounting.
s.5 Classified state civil service; scope; exempted positions; appointment and terms of members of state civil service commission; state personnel director; duties of commission; collective bargaining for state police troopers and sergeants; appointments, promotions, demotions, or removals; increases or reductions in compensation; creating or abolishing positions; recommending compensation for unclassified service; appropriation; reports of expenditures; annual audit; payment for personal services; violation; injunctive or mandamus proceedings.
s.6 Merit systems for local governments.
s.7 Impeachment of civil officers.
Art.XII Amendment and Revision
s.1 Amendment by legislative proposal and vote of electors.
s.2 Amendment by petition and vote of electors.
s.3 General revision of constitution; submission of question, convention of delegates and meeting.
Schedule and Temporary Provisions
s.1 Recommendations by attorney general for changes in laws.
s.2 Existing public and private rights, continuance.
s.3 Officers, continuance in office.
s.4 Officers elected in spring of 1963, term.
s.5 State elective executive officers and senators, two-and four-year terms.
s.6 Supreme court, reduction to seven justices.
s.7 Judges of probate, eligibility for re-election.
s.8 Judicial officers, staggered terms.
s.9 State board of education; first election, terms.
s.10 Boards controlling higher education institutions and state board of public community and junior colleges, terms.
s.11 Michigan State University trustees and Wayne State University governors, terms.
s.12 Initial allocation of departments by law or executive order.
s.13 State contracts, continuance.
s.14 Mackinac Bridge Authority; refunding of bonds, transfer of functions to highway department.
s.15 Submission of constitution; time, notice.
s.16 Voters, ballots, effective date.
Selected Annotated Bibliography
Table of Cases
About the Author
Sign up for alerts
The Michigan State Constitution
Susan P. Fino
US Constitutional Law [USC]
Oxford Commentaries on the State Constitutions of the United States
Published in print:
18 April 2011