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Oxford Law Citator
Foreword to the Second Edition
Foreword to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Part One The History of the Wyoming Constitution
The History and Development of the Wyoming Constitution
The Wyoming Constitutional Convention
The Wyoming Constitution
Wyoming Constitutional Amendments
The Wyoming Supreme Court and Constitutional Interpretation
Part Two The Wyoming Constitution and Commentary
Art.I Declaration of Rights
s.1 Power inherent in the people.
s.2 Equality of all.
s.3 Equal political rights.
s.4 Security against search and seizure.
s.5 Imprisonment for debt.
s.6 Due process of law.
s.7 No absolute, arbitrary power.
s.8 Courts open to all; suits against state.
s.9 Trial by jury inviolate.
s.10 Right of accused to defend.
Right to Counsel
Right to Know Particulars of Accusation
Right to Process to Compel Witnesses
Right to a Speedy Trial
Right to Confront Witnesses
Trial by Impartial Jury
s.11 Self-incrimination; jeopardy.
The Right against Self-incrimination
s.12 Detaining witnesses.
s.14 Bail; cruel and unusual punishment.
Cruel or Unusual Punishment
s.15 Penal code to be humane.
s.16 Conduct of jails.
s.17 Habeas corpus.
s.18 Religious liberty.
s.19 Appropriations for sectarian or religious societies or institutions prohibited.
s.20 Freedom of speech and press; libel; truth a defense.
s.21 Right of petition and peaceable assembly.
s.22 Protection of labor.
s.24 Right to bear arms.
s.25 Military subordinate to civil power; quartering soldiers.
s.27 Elections free and equal.
s.28 Taxation—Consent of people; uniformity and equality.
s.29 Rights of aliens.
s.30 Monopolies and perpetuities prohibited.
s.31 Control of water.
s.32 Eminent domain.
s.33 Compensation for property taken.
s.34 Uniform operation of general law.
s.35 Ex post facto laws; impairing obligation of contracts.
s.36 Rights not enumerated reserved to people.
s.37 Constitution of the United States supreme law of land.
s.38 Right of health care access.
s.39 Opportunity to hunt, fish and trap.
Art.II Distribution of Powers
s.1 Powers of government divided into three departments.
Art.III Legislative Department
s.1 Composition and name of legislature.
s.2 Members’ terms and qualifications.
s.3 Legislative apportionment.
s.5 When members elected and terms begin.
s.6 Duration of sessions; compensation of members.
s.7 Time and place of sessions.
s.8 Members disqualified for other office.
s.9 Compensation not to be increased during term.
s.10 Presiding officers; other officers; each house to judge of election and qualification of its members.
s.12 Rules, punishment and protection.
s.14 Sessions to be open.
s.16 Privilege of members.
s.17 Power of impeachment; proceedings.
s.18 Who may be impeached.
s.19 Removal of officers not subject to impeachment.
s.20 Laws to be passed by bill; alteration or amendment of bills.
s.21 Enacting clause of law.
s.22 Limitation on time for introducing bill of appropriation.
s.23 Bill must go to committee.
s.24 Bill to contain only one subject, which shall be expressed in title.
s.25 Vote required to pass bill.
s.26 How laws revised, amended or extended.
s.27 Special and local laws prohibited.
s.28 Signing of bills.
s.29 Legislative employees.
s.30 Extra compensation to public officers, etc., prohibited.
s.31 Supplies for legislature and departments.
s.32 Changing terms and salaries of public officers.
s.33 Origin of revenue bills.
s.34 General appropriation bills; other appropriations.
s.35 Money expended only on appropriation.
s.36 Prohibited appropriations.
s.37 Delegation of power to perform municipal functions prohibited.
s.38 Investment of trust funds.
s.39 Aid to railroads prohibited.
s.40 Debts to state or municipal corporation cannot be released unless otherwise prescribed by legislature.
s.41 Resolutions—Approval or veto.
s.42 Bribery of legislators and solicitation of bribery defined; expulsion of legislator for bribery or solicitation.
s.43 Offers to bribe.
s.44 Witnesses in bribery charges.
s.45 Legislature shall define corrupt solicitation.
s.46 Interested member shall not vote.
s.47 Congressional representation.
s.48 State census.
s.49 District representation.
s.50 Apportionment for first legislature.
s.51 Filling of vacancies.
Initiative and Referendum
s.52 Initiative and referendum.
s.53 Creation of criminal penalties not subject to governor’s power to commute.
Art.IV Executive Department
s.1 Executive power vested in governor; term of governor.
s.2 Qualifications of governor.
s.3 Election of governor.
s.4 Power and duties of governor generally.
s.5 Pardoning power of governor.
s.6 Acting governor.
s.7 When governor may fill vacancies in office.
s.8 Approval or veto of legislation by governor; passage over veto.
s.9 Veto of items of appropriations.
s.10 Bribery or coercion of or by governor.
s.11 State officers—Election; qualifications; terms.
s.12 State officers; power and duties.
s.13 Salaries of governor and other elective state officers.
s.14 Examination of accounts.
s.15 Great seal of state.
Art.V Judicial Department
s.1 How judicial power vested.
s.2 Supreme court generally; appellate jurisdiction.
s.3 Supreme court generally; original jurisdiction.
s.4 Supreme court generally; number, election of chief justice; quorum; vacancies in supreme court or district court; judicial nominating commission; terms; standing for retention in office.
s.5 Voluntary retirement and compensation of justices and judges.
s.6 Commission on judicial conduct and ethics.
s.7 Supreme court generally; terms of court.
s.8 Supreme court generally; qualifications of justices.
s.9 Supreme court generally; clerk.
s.10 District courts generally; jurisdiction.
s.11 District courts generally; judges to hold court for each other.
s.12 District courts generally; qualifications of judges.
s.13 District courts generally; clerks.
s.14 District courts generally; commissioners.
s.15 Style of process.
s.16 Supreme court judges limited to judicial duties.
s.17 Salaries of judges of supreme and district courts.
s.18 Appeals from district courts to supreme court.
s.19 State divided into districts; election and terms of district judges.
s.20 Districts defined.
s.21 Increase in number of districts and judges.
s.22 Jurisdiction of justices of the peace. [Repealed.]
s.23 Appeals from justices’ courts. [Repealed.]
s.24 Terms of district courts; attaching unorganized territory to organized counties.
s.25 Judges of supreme and district courts shall not practice.
s.26 Power to fix terms of court.
s.27 Judges of supreme and district courts shall not hold other office.
s.28 Appeals from boards of arbitration.
s.29 Juvenile delinquency and domestic relations courts.
Art.VI Suffrage and Elections
s.1 Male and female citizens to enjoy equal rights.
s.2 Qualifications of electors.
s.3 Electors privileged from arrest.
s.4 Exemption of electors from military duty.
s.5 Electors must be citizens of United States.
s.6 What persons excluded from franchise.
s.7 When residence not lost by reason of absence.
s.8 Soldiers stationed in state not considered residents.
s.9 Educational qualifications of electors.
s.10 Alien suffrage.
s.11 Manner of holding elections.
s.12 Registration of voters required.
s.13 Purity of elections to be provided for.
s.14 Election contests.
s.15 Qualifications for office.
s.16 When officers to hold over; suspension of officers.
s.17 Time of holding general and special elections; when elected officers to enter upon duties.
s.18 Method of selecting officers whose election is not provided for.
s.19 Dual office holding.
s.20 Oath of office; form.
s.21 Oath of Office; how administered.
s.22 Absent voter ballots, voting and registration.
Art.VII Education; State Institutions; Promotion of Health and Morals; Public Buildings
s.1 Legislature to provide for public schools.
s.2 School revenues.
s.3 Other sources of school revenues.
s.4 Restriction in use of revenues.
s.5 Fines and penalties to belong to public school fund.
s.6 State to keep school funds; investment.
s.7 Application of school funds.
s.8 Distribution of school funds.
s.9 Taxation for schools.
s.10 No discrimination between pupils.
s.12 Sectarianism prohibited.
s.13 Land commissioners. [Superseded.]
s.14 Supervision of schools entrusted to state superintendent of public instruction.
s.15 Establishment of university confirmed.
s.16 Tuition fee.
s.17 Government of university.
s.18 Establishment; supervision by state board of charities and reform.
s.19 Territorial institutions pass to state.
s.20 Duty of legislature to protect and promote health and morality of people.
s.21 Buildings and property of territory pass to state.
s.22 Construction and supervision.
s.23 Permanent location.
Art.VIII Irrigation and Water Rights
s.1 Water is state property.
s.2 Board of control.
s.3 Priority of appropriation.
s.4 Water divisions.
s.5 State engineer.
Art.IX Mines and Mining
s.1 Inspector of mines.
s.2 Legislature to enact regulatory laws.
s.3 Restrictions on employment in mines. [Repealed.]
s.4 Right of action for injuries.
s.5 School of mines.
s.6 State geologist. [Repealed.]
s.2 Control by state.
s.3 Forfeited charters. [Executed.]
s.4 Damages for personal injuries or death; worker’s compensation.
s.5 Acceptance of constitution.
s.6 Engaging in more than one line of business.
s.7 What corporations are common carriers.
s.8 Trusts prohibited.
s.9 Eminent domain.
s.10 Mutual and co-operative associations.
s.11 Powers and rights of railroads.
s.12 Discrimination by railroads and telegraph lines forbidden.
s.13 Railroads to make annual reports to state auditor.
s.14 Eminent domain.
s.15 Aid to railroads and telegraph lines prohibited.
s.16 Acceptance of constitution by existing railroad, transportation and telegraph companies.
s.17 Rights of telegraph companies.
s.18 Foreign railroad or telegraph company must have agent for service of process.
s.19 Location of depots.
s.1 State boundaries.
Art.XII County Organization
s.1 Existing counties remain such.
s.2 Organization of new counties.
s.3 Changing county seats.
s.4 Township organization.
s.5 County officers.
Art.XIII Municipal Corporations
s.1 Incorporation; alteration of boundaries; merger; consolidation; dissolution; determination of local affairs; classification; referendum; and liberal construction.
s.2 Consent of electors necessary.
s.3 Restriction on powers to levy taxes and contract debts.
s.5 Acquisition of water rights.
Art.XIV Public Officers
s.1 Stated salaries to be paid.
s.3 Legislature to designate county offices and fix salaries of county officers.
s.5 Who are county officers referred to by Sec. 3.
s.6 Consolidation of offices.
Art.XV Taxation and Revenue
s.1 Assessment of lands and improvements thereon.
s.2 Assessment of coal lands.
s.3 Taxation of mines and mining claims.
s.4 State levy limited.
s.5 County levies limited.
s.6 City levies limited.
s.7 Depositories for public moneys.
s.8 Profit making from public funds prohibited.
s.9 Legislature to provide for state board of equalization.
s.10 Duties of state board of equalization.
s.11 Uniformity of assessment required.
s.12 Exemptions from taxation.
s.13 Tax must be authorized by law; law to state object.
s.14 Surrender of taxing power prohibited.
s.15 State tax for support of public schools.
s.16 Disposition of fees, excises and license taxes on vehicles and gasoline.
s.17 County levy for support and maintenance of public schools.
s.18 Full tax credit allowed against any liability arising from a tax on income.
s.19 Mineral excise tax; distribution.
s.20 Higher education trust funds; investments; earnings.
Art.XVI Public Indebtedness
s.1 Limitation on state debt.
s.2 Creation of state debt in excess of taxes for current year.
s.3 Limitation on county debt.
s.4 Creation of county or municipal debt in excess of taxes for current year.
s.5 Limitation on municipal, county or school district debt.
s.6 Loan of credit; donations prohibited; works of internal improvement.
s.7 Payments of public money.
s.8 Endorsements required on bonds and other evidences of indebtedness.
s.9 Construction and improvement of public roads and highways.
s.10 Construction and improvement of works for conservation and utilization of water.
s.11 Construction, maintenance and improvement of public airports, aircraft landing strips and related facilities.
s.12 Economic development loan fund.
s.13 Industrial and economic development; powers of counties and municipalities.
Art.XVII State Militia
s.1 Of whom militia constituted.
s.2 Legislature to provide for enrollment, equipment and discipline.
s.3 How officers commissioned.
s.5 Governor to be commander-in-chief; powers.
Art.XVIII Public Lands and Donations
s.1 Acceptance of lands from United States; sale of such lands.
s.2 Application of proceeds of sale or rental.
s.3 Board of land commissioners.
s.4 Legislature to provide for disposition of lands.
s.5 Special privileges prohibited.
s.6 Disposition of unexpended income of perpetual school fund.
s.1 Legislature to provide for protection of livestock and stock owners.
s.2 Day’s work.
s.3 Who shall not be employed on public works.
s.4 Legislature to provide for enforcement of Sec. 3.
Boards of Arbitration
s.5 Legislature to establish courts of arbitration; duties. [Repealed.]
s.6 Importing armed bodies to suppress violence prohibited; exception.
s.7 Contract exempting employer from liability for personal injuries prohibited.
s.8 Legislature to provide for voluntary submission of differences to arbitrators.
s.9 Exemption of homestead.
s.10 Intoxicating liquors.
s.11 Use of monies in public employee retirement funds restricted.
s.1 How amendments proposed by legislature and submitted to people.
s.2 How two or more amendments voted on.
s.3 Constitutional convention.
s.4 Constitution adopted by convention to be submitted to people.
s.1 Acquired rights continue.
s.2 Territorial property vested in state.
s.3 Territorial laws become state laws.
s.4 Accrued fines go to state.
s.5 State to sue on bonds and prosecute crimes.
s.6 Territorial officers to hold over.
s.7 Submission of constitution.
s.8 When constitution takes effect.
s.9 First state election—Time of holding; proclamation.
s.10 First state election; duty of county commissioners; who may vote; conduct of election.
s.11 First state election; board of canvassers.
s.12 When officers shall qualify; oaths; bonds.
s.13 First state legislature.
s.14 Laws to be passed.
s.15 Transfer of pending causes, records, and seal of courts.
s.16 Court seals.
s.17 Transfer of causes and records from probate courts to district courts.
s.18 How legislature chosen.
s.19 Duration of terms of territorial county and precinct officers.
s.20 Terms of state officers first elected.
s.21 Regular session of legislature following first session.
s.22 Regular election following first session of legislature to be omitted.
s.23 Why constitution framed.
s.24 State part of United States.
s.25 Religious liberty.
s.26 Ownership of certain lands disclaimed; restriction on taxation of nonresidents.
s.27 Territorial liabilities assumed.
s.28 Legislature to provide for public schools.
Table of Cases
About the Author
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G. Alan Tarr
The Wyoming State Constitution (2nd Edition)
Robert B. Keiter
US Constitutional Law [USC]
Oxford Commentaries on the State Constitutions of the United States
Published in print:
13 July 2017