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Oxford Law Citator
Part One The History of the Washington Constitution and Its Interpretation
The History and Development of the Idaho Constitution
Protecting a Self-Sufficient Way of Life
Power Divided among Political Institutions
Applying History and Developing a Principled Methodology for Independent Interpretation of Washington’s Constitution
Studying History and Discerning Intent
Part Two The Washington Constitution and Commentary
Art.I Declaration of Rights
s.1 Political power.
s.2 Supreme law of the land.
s.3 Personal rights.
s.4 Right of petition and assemblage.
s.5 Freedom of speech.
s.6 Oaths—Mode of administering.
s.7 Invasion of private affairs or home prohibited.
s.8 Irrevocable privilege, franchise or immunity prohibited.
s.9 Rights of accused persons
s.10 Administration of justice.
s.11 Religious freedom.
s.12 Special privileges and immunities prohibited.
s.13 Habeas corpus.
s.14 Excessive bail, fines and punishments.
s.15 Convictions, effect of.
s.16 Eminent domain.
s.17 Imprisonment for debt.
s.18 Military power, limitation of.
s.19 Freedom of elections.
s.20 Bail, when authorized.
s.21 Trial by jury.
s.22 Rights of the accused.
s.23 Bill of attainder, ex post facto law, etc.
s.24 Right to bear arms.
s.25 Prosecution by information.
s.26 Grand jury.
s.27 Treason, defined, etc.
s.28 Hereditary privileges abolished.
s.29 Constitution mandatory.
s.30 Rights reserved.
s.31 Standing army.
s.32 Fundamental principles.
s.33 Recall of elective officers.
s.35 Victims of crimes—Rights.
Art.II Legislative Department
s.1 Legislative powers, where vested.
Legislative Delegations of Power
Declarations of Emergency
s.1(a) Initiative and referendum, signatures required.
s.2 House of representatives and senate.
s.3 The census.
s.4 Election of representatives and term of office.
s.5 Elections, when to be held.
s.6 Election and term of office of senators.
s.7 Qualifications of legislators.
s.8 Judges of their own election and qualification—Quorum.
s.9 Rules of procedure.
s.10 Election of officers.
s.11 Journal, publicity of meetings—Adjournments.
s.12 Sessions, when—Duration.
s.13 Limitation on members holding office in the state.
s.14 Same, federal or other office.
s.15 Vacancies in legislature and in partisan county elective office.
s.16 Privileges from arrest.
s.17 Freedom of debate.
s.18 Style of laws.
s.19 Bill to contain one subject.
s.20 Origin and amendment of bills.
s.21 Yeas and nays.
s.22 Passage of bills.
s.23 Compensation of members.
s.24 Lotteries and divorce.
s.25 Extra compensation prohibited.
s.26 Suits against the state.
s.27 Elections—Viva voce vote.
s.28 Special legislation.
s.29 Convict labor.
s.30 Bribery or corrupt solicitation.
s.31 Laws, when to take effect.
s.32 Laws, how signed.
s.33 Ownership of lands by aliens, prohibited—Exceptions.
s.34 Bureau of statistics, agriculture and immigration.
s.35 Protection of employees.
s.36 When bills must be introduced.
s.37 Revision or amendment.
s.38 Limitation on amendments.
s.39 Free transportation to public officer prohibited.
s.40 Highway funds.
s.41 Laws, effective date, initiative, referendum—amendment or repeal.
s.42 Governmental continuity during emergency periods.
Art.III The Executive
s.1 Executive department.
s.2 Governor, term of office.
s.3 Other executive officers, terms of office.
s.4 Returns of elections, canvass, etc.
s.5 General duties of governor.
s.7 Extra legislative sessions.
s.9 Pardoning power.
s.10 Vacancy in office of governor.
s.11 Remission of fines and forfeitures.
s.12 Veto powers.
s.13 Vacancy in appointive office.
s.15 Commissions, how issued.
s.16 Lieutenant governor, duties and salary.
s.17 Secretary of state, duties and salary.
s.19 State treasurer, duties and salary.
s.20 State auditor, duties and salary.
s.21 Attorney general, duties and salary.
s.22 Superintendent of public instruction, duties and salary.
s.23 Commissioner of Public Lands—Compensation.
s.24 Records, where kept, etc.
s.25 Qualifications, compensation, offices which may be abolished.
Art.IV The Judiciary
s.1 Judicial power, where vested.
s.2 Supreme court.
s.2(a) Temporary performance of judicial duties.
s.3 Election and terms of supreme court judges.
s.3(a) Retirement of supreme court and superior court judges.
s.5 Superior court—Election of judges, terms of, etc.
s.6 Jurisdiction of superior courts.
s.7 Exchange of judges—Judge pro tempore.
s.8 Absence of judicial officer.
s.9 Removal of judges, attorney general, etc.
s.10 Justices of the peace.
s.11 Courts of record.
s.12 Inferior courts.
s.13 Salaries of judicial officers—How paid, etc.
s.14 Salaries of supreme and superior court judges.
s.15 Ineligibility of judges.
s.16 Charging juries.
s.17 Eligibility of judges.
s.18 Supreme court reporter.
s.19 Judges may not practice law.
s.20 Decisions, when to be made.
s.21 Publication of opinions.
s.22 Clerk of the supreme court.
s.23 Court commissioners.
s.24 Rules for superior courts.
s.25 Reports of superior court judges.
s.26 Clerk of the superior court.
s.27 Style of process.
s.28 Oath of judges.
s.29 Election of superior court judges.
s.30 Court of appeals.
s.31 Commission on judicial conduct.
s.1 Impeachment—Power of and procedure.
s.2 Officers liable to.
s.3 Removal from office.
Art.VI Elections and Elective Rights
s.1 Qualifications of electors.
s.1(a) Voter qualifications for presidential elections.
s.2 School elections—Franchise, how extended.
s.3 Who disqualified.
s.4 Residence, contingencies affecting.
s.5 Voter—When privileged from arrest.
s.8 Elections, time of holding.
Art.VII Revenue and Taxation
s.2 Limitation on levies.
s.3 Taxation of federal agencies and property.
s.4 No surrender of power or suspension of tax on corporate property.
s.5 Taxes, how levied.
s.6 Taxes, how paid.
s.7 Annual statement.
s.8 Tax to cover deficiencies.
s.9 Special assessments or taxation for local improvements.
s.10 Retired persons property tax exemption.
s.11 Taxation based on actual use.
s.12 Budget stabilization account.
Art.VIII State, County, and Municipal Indebtedness
s.1 State debt.
s.2 Powers extended in certain cases.
s.3 Special indebtedness, how authorized.
s.4 Moneys disbursed only by appropriations.
s.5 Credit not to be loaned.
s.6 Limitations upon municipal indebtedness.
s.7 Credit not to be loaned.
s.8 Port expenditures—Industrial development—Promotion.
s.9 State building authority.
s.10 Energy, water, or stormwater or sewer services conservation assistance.
s.11 Agricultural commodity assessments—Development, promotion, and hosting.
s.2 Public school system.
s.3 Funds for support.
s.4 Sectarian control or influence prohibited.
s.5 Loss of permanent fund to become state debt.
s.1 Who liable to military duty.
s.2 Organization—Discipline—Officers—Power to call out.
s.3 Soldiers’ home.
s.4 Public arms.
s.5 Privilege from arrest.
s.6 Exemption from military duty.
Art.XI County, City, and Township Organization
s.1 Existing counties recognized.
s.2 County seats—Location and removal.
s.3 New counties.
s.4 County government and township organization.
s.5 County government.
s.6 Vacancies in township, precinct or road district office.
s.7 Tenure of office limited to two terms.
s.8 Salaries and limitations affecting.
s.9 State taxes not to be released or commuted.
s.10 Incorporation of municipalities.
s.11 Police and sanitary regulations.
s.12 Assessment and collection of taxes in municipalities.
s.13 Private property, when may be taken for public debt.
s.14 Private use of public funds prohibited.
s.15 Deposit of public funds.
s.16 Combined city-county.
Art.XII Corporations other than Municipal
s.1 Corporations, how formed.
s.2 Existing charters.
s.3 Existing charters not to be extended nor forfeiture remitted.
s.4 Liability of stockholders.
s.5 Term “corporation,” defined—Right to sue and be sued.
s.6 Limitations upon issuance of stock.
s.7 Foreign corporations.
s.8 Alienation of franchise not to release liabilities.
s.9 State not to loan its credit or subscribe for stock.
s.10 Eminent domain affecting.
s.11 Stockholder liability.
s.12 Receiving deposits by bank after insolvency.
s.13 Common carriers, regulation of.
s.14 Prohibition against combinations by carriers (Repealed).
s.15 Prohibition against discriminating charges.
s.16 Prohibition against consolidating of competing lines.
s.17 Rolling stock, personalty for purpose of taxation.
s.18 Rates for transportation.
s.19 Telegraph and telephone companies.
s.20 Prohibition against free transportation for public officers.
s.21 Express companies.
s.22 Monopolies and trusts.
Art.XIII State Institutions
s.1 Educational, reformatory, and penal institutions.
Art.XIV Seat of Government
s.1 State capital, location of.
s.2 Change of state capital.
s.3 Restrictions on appropriations for capitol buildings.
Art.XV Harbors and Tide Waters
s.1 Harbor line commission and restraint on disposition.
s.2 Leasing and maintenance of wharves, docks, etc.
s.3 Extension of streets over tide lands.
Art.XVI School and Granted Lands
s.1 Disposition of.
s.2 Manner and terms of sale.
s.3 Limitations on sales.
s.4 How much may be offered in certain cases—Platting of.
s.5 Investment of permanent common school fund.
s.6 Investment of Higher Education Permanent Funds.
Art.XVII Tide Lands
s.1 Declaration of state ownership.
s.2 Disclaimer of certain lands.
Art.XVIII State Seal
s.1 Seal of the state.
s.1 Exemptions—Homesteads, etc.
Art.XX Public Health and Vital Statistics
s.1 Board of health and bureau of vital statistics.
s.2 Regulations concerning medicine, surgery and pharmacy.
Art.XXI Water and Water Rights
s.1 Public use of water.
Art.XXII Legislative Apportionment
s.1 Senatorial apportionment.
s.2 Apportionment of representatives.
s.1 How made.
s.2 Constitutional conventions.
s.3 Submission to the people.
s.1 State boundaries.
s.1 Authority of the United States.
Art.XXVI Compact with the United States
s.1 Existing rights, actions, and contracts saved.
s.2 Laws in force continued.
s.3 Debts, fines, etc., to inure to the state.
s.5 Criminal prosecutions and penal actions.
s.6 Retention of territorial officers.
s.7 Constitutional officers, when elected.
s.8 Change of courts—Transfer of causes.
s.9 Seals of courts and municipalities.
s.10 Probate court, transfer of.
s.11 Duties of first legislature.
s.12 Election contests for superior judges, how decided.
s.13 Representation in congress.
s.14 Duration of term of certain officers.
s.15 Election on adoption of constitution, how to be conducted.
s.16 When constitution to take effect.
s.17 Separate articles.
Art.XXVIII Compensation of State Officers
s.1 Salaries for legislature, elected state officials, and judges—Independent commission—Referendum.
Art.XXIX Investments of Public Pension and Retirement Funds
s.1 May be invested as authorized by law.
Art.XXX Compensation of Public Officers
s.1 Authorizing compensation increase during term.
Art.XXXI Sex Equality—Rights and Responsibilities
s.1 Equality not denied because of sex.
s.2 Enforcement power of legislature.
Art.XXXII Special Revenue Financing
s.1 Special revenue financing.
Note on Sources
Table of Cases
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Table of Cases
The Washington State Constitution (2nd Edition)
Robert F. Utter, Hugh D. Spitzer
US Constitutional Law [USC]
Oxford Commentaries on the State Constitutions of the United States
Published in print:
11 April 2013