Protests in Sudan began in January 2011 as part of the regional Arab Spring movement. Demonstrations were less common throughout the summer of 2011, during which South Sudan seceded from Sudan, but resumed in force late in the year. A referendum held on 9–15 January 2011 in Southern Sudan led to the division of the country into two separate states. On 9 July 2011, the Republic of South Sudan emerged as a new state while the northern part, the Republic of Sudan, remained with its pre-existing state structures on a reduced territory and with an Arab and Muslim...
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